Month: August 2020

Rabbit Breeding: How to Start?

Rabbit Breeding

Rabbit breeding is one of the most popular areas in the agricultural business. Both large enterprises, small farms and just individual residents are engaged in it. The rabbit herd can be found in any rural yard. Recently, even urban residents, who have a plot not far from their home, have begun to breed rabbits. This article will become a detailed instruction on breeding rabbits at home for beginners and for those who wish to replenish or refresh their existing knowledge.

Breed selection

First you need to decide for what purpose you are buying rabbits. If you decide to raise animals for meat, then you should choose among some breeds, but if you are guided only by obtaining high-quality skin, then other breeds should be considered.

Often, novice rabbit breeders buy eared meat-skin breed. Please note that it is still better to buy a beef breed initially, since it is easier to care for them, they are absolutely unpretentious and at the same time give excellent results.

Remember that if you are a beginner, then it is not worth purchasing exotic breeds. Without certain experience, conditions of detention and food, most likely the animals will not survive with you.

It is best to opt for purebred local breeds. It will cost several times less, and the hassle will be less. After a short time, you will be convinced of the correctness of your choice.

When buying, be sure to pay attention to the appearance of the animals, they should be mobile, moderately well-fed, downed, with powerful legs, shiny eyes and silky hair.

You should not save and take a few defective rabbits with a disproportionate body: a long head, a sagging back, crooked paws or a receding hairline. It is absolutely impossible to breed such animals, otherwise you will get sick offspring.

Content methods

Before buying a herd of rabbits, you need to take care of housing for them in advance. Animals can be kept in cages, enclosures or pits. Each home has its own pros and cons, so you should choose only at your own discretion.

During the summer months, rabbits are best kept in cages outdoors. It is best to give your preference to two-story cells. Please note that it is not worth making housing from chipboard, as it picks up moisture very quickly and after a short time begins to crumble. The corners of the wooden cage must be trimmed with metal inserts, otherwise your pets will simply gnaw them. Walls and ceilings are also best made of wood. The floor must be double, the bottom layer is made of wood, and the top must be made of lattice. But make sure that the legs of the eared ears do not fall into the mesh of the lattice. The double bottom has the advantage of not having to disassemble the entire cage to clean the floor, just pull out the bottom of the floor and wash it.

With cage keeping, you have the ability to regulate the amount of food eaten, and the likelihood of unauthorized mating among animals is completely eliminated.

Rabbits have weak immunity and since they rarely come into contact with each other when kept in cells, the appearance of an epidemic is almost impossible. It has been noticed that in rabbits that were kept in cages, the meat is much more tender and tastier.

Remember that the cage should be spacious, the minimum size is 70 * 50 * 150 cm. This size is suitable for a female with cubs or for two individuals. Remember that the size of the home is very important, and if the animal does not feel comfortable in it, then you can forget about good results and high productivity.

Recently, more and more fans of aviary, that is, free content, have appeared. From the economic point of view, it looks more profitable, since you do not need to spend money on a cage and equipment for it, you just need to build an aviary. They also believe that this is the most natural way.

Among the advantages of this breeding method is the ability of animals to move freely and a lot, which has a positive effect on their health. When kept in an open-air cage, the behavior of rabbits is calmer and aggression disappears. The offspring grows stronger and more resilient.

Also, if you feed the animals correctly, they will reach puberty faster than their caged counterparts.

Farmers prefer this type of rabbit keeping because of the ease of care. The aviary is cleaned several times less often than in the cages. And you can feed and drink everyone at the same time.

Among the disadvantages is the complete loss of control over the behavior of the animal. In case of infection of one eared, most likely everyone will get sick. It is also almost impossible to carry out breeding work. It has been noticed that if rabbits are kept in an aviary for a long time, they will become smaller, and then completely die out.


A properly formulated diet is essential to the health of your rabbits. The feed must be balanced and contain all the necessary nutrients and minerals. Since they themselves are very active, they also have a fast metabolism, therefore they are very gluttonous.

In summer, it is best to give them green food, they contain the right amount of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, are easy to digest, and they also have enough vitamins. It is very beneficial to add fresh herbs to the diet, such as alfalfa, corn, sunflowers, oats, millet, and other grasses.

With great pleasure, rabbits eat nettle, burdock, quinoa, as well as various tops. At night, it is best to give hay to the eared ears instead of fresh grass.

It is very important to diversify the diet of animals and not to feed the same from day to day. Since this will soon lead to a loss of appetite.

In winter, hay flour and hay should be the basis of the diet. They are rich in protein and vitamins. Also remember to add haylage to your food.


Novice rabbit breeders often ask the question of how often animals can be mated, and at what age it is possible to breed. By the fourth month of life, the rabbits are already fully ripe, but experts recommend not to rush to mating. Wait until they are fully strengthened and gain the desired body weight.

Bunnies should be mated immediately after birth. Please note that immediately after giving birth, the female is already ready for the next fertilization. Still, it’s better to give them rest, otherwise you will greatly undermine their health.

In general, mating is recommended no more than four times a year. In this case, you will get high-quality and healthy offspring.

The duration of pregnancy in the rabbit is short, about a month. During this period, it must be transferred to a different diet and all heavy proteins removed from it. It is also best to plant her in a separate cage, where no one will disturb her. After the birth of the babies, it is worth observing the attention of the young mother, and if she does not look after the offspring – to plant and take all her responsibilities upon herself.

Benefits and Features of Using a Litter for Pigs

litter for pigs

Keeping animals in your farm on a special disinfector is very convenient and cost effective. For many farmers in our country, such an innovative technology is still a wonder, while in other countries it has been used for a long time and successfully. What is the principle of operation of this modern agricultural product, what is needed to make such a flooring in your pigsty, what are the advantages of the method of how to properly care for the bedding material – you will learn all this from our article.

Description of technology

Many pet owners have many questions at the mention of bacterial bedding. The main thing to understand is that this unique product allows pigs to be kept on a deep modern bed made of bedding material and to exclude the removal of manure.

Some budding farmers may be concerned if bacteria breakdown of the fermentation bed will affect animal health? We hasten to reassure you – such a flooring looks like ordinary shavings or sand. The fermentation process takes place not on its surface, but deep in the layers. The basis of the fermentation litter, on which it is recommended to carry out the correct maintenance of pigs, consists of fermented milk and photosynthetic safe bacteria, which have the ability to quickly and efficiently break down animal waste.

The principle of operation can be globally comparable to the work of dry closets. The pig owner only needs to cover a layer of cover, and he always gets a clean room, without unpleasant odor, warm and dry, in which the pigs are warm and comfortable. Heat is generated by a constant reaction in the deep fermentation bed. Inside it, the temperature can be about +40 degrees, while on the surface it will be no more than 20 – 30.

Perfect technology will enable all livestock breeders to avoid unnecessary costs and forget about the need for daily cleaning of the pigsty.

What is required

Keeping pigs on the amazing bacterial bedding is pretty easy. For most decking with bacteria from various manufacturers, a gap-free and draft-free room is sufficient.

The height of the material layer should be appropriate for the construction of the shed and floor, as well as the number of pigs. On average, the flooring height varies in the region of 40 – 70 cm.

To prevent heat loss, the room must have an insulated concrete floor. If the floor is made of earth, the enzyme bedding cushion should be increased by 10 to 15 cm.

The minimum area allotted for each of the pigs when kept on a decking with bacteria should be from 1 to 1.1 square meters.

Method advantages

Experts recommend that beginners purchase a ready-made fermentation bed for animals. Its use has a lot of undeniable advantages:

  • Provided it is used correctly, one layer of material of good thickness will last for 4 to 5 years.
  • There is a saving of effort for cleaning, which must be carried out regularly when keeping pigs.
  • The breakdown of the waste products of your pets in the deep litter occurs within a day.
  • Reduces the cost of additional heating of the livestock.
  • There are no unpleasant, pungent odors and dirty areas.
  • Reduced morbidity and mortality of individuals in the herd.
  • The flooring is a high quality, animal health friendly material of natural origin.
  • Allows to significantly reduce the use of labor.
  • It is an excellent preventive measure in terms of preventing viral infections in animals.
  • Reduces emissions of harmful ammonia into the environment, prevents pollution of groundwater by means of manure.
  • Animals will not loosen the flooring the way they usually do with traditional flooring during the winter months.
  • With this content, the feed recipe is no different from the traditional one. Only on cold days do animals need to be given more retinas.
  • This technology is suitable for both large livestock farms and small pig farms.

How to keep the bedding

Before placing the product, the pigsty should be cleaned of debris, disinfect and whitewash the room.

Sawdust for flooring needs to be taken small, flaky, and even sandy. This substance should make up about 70% of the total flooring. The sawdust should have a moisture content of over 30%. It is best if they lie in a dry place beforehand.

The surface where the deck is to be placed must allow excess moisture to drain. If the pigsty is located in a swampy area, a drainage bed up to 40 cm thick is made from rubble or coarse rocks. Then it should be covered with polyethylene or a banner cloth. This is how the primary waterproofing is done.

It is necessary to place the flooring at a room temperature above 0 degrees. In the pigsty, when placing pigs on such a flooring, there should be no cracks and drafts. You will need to regularly ventilate the pigsty to keep the humidity at the optimum. Monitor temperature readings.

In order for the animals to have excellent health, to be vigorous, to fully develop, the used flooring at the end of the service life must be removed in time. Even if you don’t remember exactly how many years such a flooring has served, you can understand the need to replace it by some signs: it becomes dark, almost black, does not cope well with the absorption of slurry and manure, and stops absorbing unwanted odors. At the end of the shelf life, such a product is at the same temperature as the environment.

Since the product is based on organic compounds, the manure layer can then be used as fertilizer. Its quality depends on how much dry matter is included in the flooring, and what kind of feed the animals received.

How Much Hay Goat Needs in the Winter

How Much Hay Goat Needs in the Winter

Proper nutrition of livestock on the farm is very important for maintaining their health, as well as obtaining quality livestock products. So that goats do not feel a lack of roughage in winter, autumn and early spring, you should take care of the timely preparation of hay. Farmers and household owners care about how much hay a goat needs during stall housing. We will answer this question.

How much hay do you need

It is widely believed that keeping goats in winter is very costly. After all, animals need a full-fledged diet, which includes various types of feed, compensating for the lack of grazing on green grass. But this is only at first glance.

Good quality hay can more than meet the needs of goats for vitamins and minerals. The productivity of dairy goats will cover all feed costs. In this regard, one should take a responsible attitude to the quantity and quality of hay harvested for the winter.

In autumn, with the onset of cold weather, animals are transferred to stalls. Small kids are transferred first, and later – older individuals. The start-up period is very important and the goats need to adapt to the changes and the new diet. The first 2-3 days hay is given only in the morning, gradually increasing the amount. At this time, one goat receives 350-550 grams in the morning. And after pasture in the evening the rate of hay is about the same.

So, we can calculate that, on average, one goat needs somewhere around 550-650 kg of hay per season.

You need to calculate stocks based on the number of livestock. A goat that is milked eats about two kilograms of hay in one feeding.

Considering that it is recommended to feed the animals twice a day, we get 4 kg of hay per day per individual. Having received this figure, you can easily calculate how much hay you need to prepare for the winter. We multiply 4 kg by the number of days of stall keeping and get the right amount of feed. And for reinsurance, we also add 150-250 kilograms.

It is important for any farmer or owner to keep in mind that adult breeding goats eat more than milking goats. A goat can eat about 6 kg of hay per day, not counting other types of feed. For small kids, the norm is 1 kg of hay per day.

The owners of these animals should remember that you need to especially carefully monitor the quality and condition of the hay at above-zero temperatures. During frosts, goats become less demanding on food, especially on hay. Keep in mind that light frosts are very beneficial for their well-being.

How to prepare hay

When harvesting hay for the winter, you need to know which grasses can affect goat health and milk yield. Milk often has a bitter taste after feeding tansy, wormwood, mustard, horsetail, chamomile and other plants.

It is imperative to start haymaking before the herbs bloom. During this period, they retain the greatest amount of nutrients.

During flowering, the plant spends all its nutritional reserves and energy, later the grass becomes coarse due to the high fiber content in the green mass.

Cereals begin to mow at the very first stage of earing, and legumes early after the opening of the buds. Harvesting is usually stopped 7-9 days before flowering. The more leaves on the mowed grass, the better and higher the nutritional value of the forage. The protein content in green leaves is almost 3 times higher than in the stems, and the amount of vitamins is 9.5 times higher. Legumes are considered the most herbaceous; they contain about 50% green leaves.

You should not mow the grass in the early morning or after rain, otherwise, it will increase the drying time of the mown hay. During drying, you can use the wilting of herbs, which ensures the preservation of nutrients and accelerates the maturation of the hay.

An important process when harvesting hay for the winter is mixing (tedding) of mown grasses. This should be done especially carefully in areas with a dense layer. Initial tedding is carried out immediately after mowing, then the greens are well dried and blown by the wind. The next tedding should be carried out as soon as the top layer dries. When the moisture content of the mowing reaches 40-50%, drying in the fields ends.

If almost finished hay is exposed to rain, turn it over after all moisture has evaporated from the top layer, and so on until it dries completely. Then the herbs should be dried in rolls. In no case should overdrying be allowed, which entails a global loss of important nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. When the hay reaches 20-25% moisture content, it is transported to places of long-term storage.

Conditions for Keeping Horses

Keeping Horses

There are 3 systems of keeping horses – herd (pasture), stables and mixed (stable and pasture). They choose among them, taking into account the natural and climatic conditions of the region and the direction of horse breeding, within which they plan to work.

Herd keeping system

This is the simplest and cheapest way of keeping horses, which has been practiced from ancient times to the present day. The rearing of animals takes place in conditions close to natural, and mainly on natural feed. The natural instinct inherent in all herbivores is the means of such maintenance.

In contrast to the primitive system of ancient nomadic tribes, currently there are 2 types of herd keeping: improved and cultural herd methods.

Improved herd method

With this method, horses are grazed throughout the year and all individuals, regardless of gender and age, are kept in 1 herd.

In case of bad weather, simple portable structures such as fenced sheds are built, where the most valuable animals of the herd are sheltered – stud stallions, foals and lactating mares. The rest of the animals are hidden in natural shelters, using forests, beams, ravines, hills, etc. for this.

Hay and grain feed stocks are stored under light sheds made from scrap materials. Natural reservoirs are used for watering. The method can be used for productive direction.

Cultural steel road

With this method, animals are provided with more durable and comfortable shelters from the weather. In addition, the division of animals into different groups by sex and age is observed. Separate grazing is provided for stallions and mares with young animals. In addition, there are certain requirements for the number of the herd, depending on the direction of horse breeding and the nature of the pastures. So, for example, for a productive direction on a flat pasture, the recommended number of herds is no more than 400 heads. For the breeding direction, the optimal composition includes from 20 stud stallions, 100-150 heads of mares and up to 150 heads of young stock.

With this method of keeping in case of bad weather or cold snap, stallions are equipped with stables, young stock and foal mares. The rest of the animals are sheltered in simplified structures such as fenced sheds.

Stable maintenance system

With this system, animals are kept in specially equipped stables, the methods of placement in which may be different. The easiest is placement in a stall. Animals stand in 1 row on a leash. They are separated from each other by partitions.

A more comfortable way for horses is to keep in a stall – a small separate room for each animal.

The partitions between them are not made deaf, leaving the upper part of the lattice. The animal, therefore, does not feel isolated, but at the same time it is in greater rest than when kept in a stall.
The height of the doors in the stalls should be 2.4 m, the width – not less than 1.2 m, the height of the blind partition – 1.4 m; above it is made of poles, bars, etc. The gaps in the transparent part of the partition should not be wider than 6 cm so that the horse, rearing up, does not get stuck in them with a hoof. The optimal dimensions of the stall are 3 x 3 m, the gates should open outward (this applies in general to all exits in the stable).

In regions with a warm climate, horses can be kept in boxes, which are almost the same as a stall, but have access not to the stables, but to the street.

At the stable, it is advisable to equip paddocks – fenced paddocks in the fresh air, where horses walk during the day, which can be both individual and group.

The paddock should be spacious enough. The area of ​​the group paddock is calculated based on the number of horses: each breeding animal must have at least 20 m2, the rest – 12 m2. Requirements for an individual paddock: for a stud stallion – 600 m2, for a trained young – 400 m2.

Paddock fencing is usually made of three rows of metal pipes 7-9 cm in diameter. Edged boards or poles can also be used. The height of the fence should be up to 2 m. Do not fence the paddocks with wire, as animals can get injured.

There are special requirements for the stables. The optimum ceiling height is 3 m. Stalls or stalls are usually arranged in 2 rows, between them there is a feed passage 3 m wide. On the sides of the feed passage, place slurry gutters. In addition, the stable room must be equipped with a ventilation system.

The floor of the stable is made of materials with low thermal conductivity, while it must be dry, non-slip, moisture-proof. Such qualities are possessed by adobe and wooden floors; in modern stables, they are often made from expanded clay concrete.

Horses are kept not on a bare floor, but on a bedding – a layer of sawdust, straw or peat, which absorbs all the impurities. Changing the bedding in stalls and stalls is required daily. When keeping horses in the halls, they make a deep bedding (45-50 cm) and change it twice a year.

Heating in stables is usually not provided. The temperature is maintained by the heat generated by the animals themselves, so it is very important that this heat is well conserved during the winter. Why use good heat-insulating materials when building a stable. The ceilings must also be insulated. The roof of the stable is made of waterproof material and covered with a fireproof covering.

Among other things, the following utility rooms should be provided at the stable:

  • fodder (for storing a stock of concentrated feed for 3 days);
  • a room for roughage;
  • room for bedding;
  • shower stall;
  • harness (for drying the harness);
  • mating arena (only on breeding farms);
  • artificial insemination room;
  • room for inventory.

Stable-pasture maintenance system

This system combines elements of stables and herds. In the warm season, animals are taken out to cultivated pastures, divided into areas for grazing groups of horses of different sex and age. The livestock of a group in one area is from 50 to 80 animals. In winter, they are kept in stables.

This method of keeping is used on large farms with a large number of horses.

Everything You Need to Know About Sheep Farming

Sheep Farming

Rearing sheepBreeding sheep on the property takes you to another degree of ranch the executives. Let?s face it, nothing is very as adorable as a sheep. Your arrangement might be to raise sheep or other fiber creatures and rearing sheep doesn’t need to be a piece of that objective. There are a lot of fine creatures accessible for the individuals who wish to have a fiber run. Slam sheep are regularly fixed and become wethers. The wethers can deliver decent wools, without having the hazard related with lodging a flawless male creature. In the event that you don?t need the work related with rearing on your own homestead, there are a lot of approaches to get future fiber creatures for your herd.

In the event that you need to raise a fiber run and have extra sheep for meat, or to sell, rearing sheep will be in your future. Realizing what’s in store, and how to get ready will make the lambing season go a little smoother. Being readied helps hugely, in light of the fact that raising livestock consistently leaves us open to managing the sudden crises, and infrequent misfortune.

Reproducing Sheep – Decisions to be Made

Choose what attributes are imperative to you before setting up your reproducing plan. Is it accurate to say that you are attempting to keep up breed principles, or cross reproducing with the goal to deliver sheep with the best attributes of various varieties? There are numerous elements to consider while picking a rearing pair. Consider the size of the ewe and the size of the smash. Rearing a huge smash to a littler variety ewe may prompt issues at lambing time. Peruse everything you can about rearing and lambing. Having a neighborhood rancher who can guide you during your first lambing season is entirely significant.

Growth – Getting Ready for Lambs

Growth keeps going roughly 150 days from rearing. Shepherds regularly keep a tight vigil on their ewes during the most recent couple of days. Grain taking care of can start half a month prior expected lambing, as a significant part of the lamb?s development in-utero happens at that point. Start with ? pound of grain per ewe and increment gradually. The last sum will rely upon the variety and size of the ewe. Check with your vet or province augmentation operator to see about offering a Bo-Se chance in the event that you are in a selenium insufficient region.

As the ewe?s incubation period slows down, a fractional or full shearing is finished. This makes it more sterile and permits the sheep to effortlessly discover the nipples on the udder. Antibodies are given a month prior lambing, to refresh the ewe?s resistance that will be gone on through the principal milk, called colostrum. The immunization is known as the CD/T antibody for Clostridium perfringens type C and D and Tetanus. A few proprietors will likewise manage a dewormer. Lambing time is a decent an ideal opportunity to go to a believed tutor to assist you with learning the ropes.

Preparing the Barn

Lambing pens are an extraordinary thought when you are rearing sheep. They don?t should be enormous, 5? x 5? is a decent size for even a huge ewe and her sheep. Set these up before lambing starts. Give each pen or container, a feed dish and basin for water. Drape the basin on the divider to keep sheep from unintentionally suffocating in the container. Intensely bed the container region with new, dry straw.

At lambing time search for indications of approaching work. The ewe will seem eager and may paw the ground. The vulva will look swollen. The udder will grow with milk, in spite of the fact that this can happen directly before birth as well, particularly with first time ewes. The zone around the hip bones will seem depressed, in light of the fact that the tendons have loose for birth.

Have a Birthing Kit Ready

At the point when you are rearing sheep, set up a birthing unit. A simple to convey plastic receptacle is a decent compartment for the provisions you may require. Numerous books on sheep reproducing and care will have a comprehensive rundown of things to have available. Here is a decent beginning.


Scissors for cutting the umbilical rope.


Obstetrical grease

Betadine – Used for cleaning Ewe on the off chance that you should help with conveyance.

Iodine – for plunging the finish of the lamb?s umbilical string

Old towels

Umbilical clasps or dental floss for tying off umbilical strings

Infant nasal needle

Rope to help in pulling a sheep that is trapped

Molasses or Nutri-soak item to restore the depleted ewe


Notwithstanding the abovementioned, having a child container and additional areolas is an extraordinary efficient device, if the sheep can?t nurture or the ewe turns out to be sick. Pritchard style nipples are ordinarily utilized, in spite of the fact that we have utilized ordinary human infant areolas as well.

Milk replacer and solidified colostrum, in the event of some unforeseen issue.

Taking care of cylinder and needle

Birthing Lambs

Conveyance of the sheep or sheep ought to be speedy, and it?s as a rule over in four or five hours from the beginning of work. It?s very barely noticeable the entire occasion in the event that you aren?t continually in the stable! Work should advance and from the time you see the sack of liquid, the sheep ought to be out soon. Most occasions the ewe won?t need any assistance. The sheep will be conceived, the sac evacuated, and the ewe will lick the sheep dry. It is imperative to watch progress as you watch the ewe work.

From the second they battle to their feet and discover the nipple, sheep will win your love. They will likewise fundamentally expand the measure of time you go through with the herd, at any rate at first. While most ewes sheep effectively all alone, some in any event, doing as such in an open field during sub zero climate, numerous little rush proprietors like to adopt an additional hands on strategy. Truth be told, numerous varieties improve higher sheep endurance rates, when lambing is done in an animal dwellingplace, with visit checks by the shepherd.

And afterward, there are the occasions when rearing sheep and thinking about ewes in labor takes all the strength we have. Sometimes, introductions aren’t right, and the ewe will require help. In the event that you choose to raise, read everything you can about the procedure and what to pay special mind to. Have a tutor accessible as needs be and the number for your vet, in the event that something goes wrong.

Be Prepared Before Breeding Season Begins

I can?t stress enough that it is so critical to be set up before lambing starts. Understand books, watch you tube recordings, converse with other sheep ranchers and your homestead vet before planning for rearing sheep. In the event that conceivable, go to lambing at a close by ranch. Addition as much involvement with rearing sheep, as could be expected under the circumstances, in light of the fact that while most ewes convey effectively, there are times that things turn out poorly. It will in any case be frightening if something turns out badly however having plans and gear set up will give some help and genuine feelings of serenity.

The best arrangement is to be available however much as could reasonably be expected, while permitting the ewe to convey and think about her sheep. Checking regularly during that time and night permits you the opportunity to give assistance when things don’t go as arranged.

One other idea to remember. On the off chance that you have a little property, recall that reproducing will build the quantity of sheep on your property. It?s simple to become involved with the second and be cleared away with the cute sheep. Cautiously consider what number of extra sheep your territory and framework can convey, before settling on the choice to raise the ewe. Selling sheep can be an approach to carry extra salary to your residence.